Apa Itu Influenza

What is influenza in Malay?

noun. /influˈenzə/ medical. a type of infectious illness usually causing headache, fever, a cold etc. demam selesema.

Who discovered influenza?

A major breakthrough came in the early 1930s, when a young physician from Iowa, Richard Shope, turned his attention to swine influenza. While researching at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Shope took lung samples from infected Iowa pigs.

What type of virus is the flu?

There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease (known as flu season) almost every winter in the United States. Influenza A viruses are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global epidemics of flu disease.

How much is flu vaccine in Malaysia?

The vaccine available anytime and is not costly although it may vary from hospital to hospital, but generally it is less than RM100.

What's the difference between influenza A and B?

Unlike type A flu viruses, type B flu is found only in humans. Type B flu may cause a less severe reaction than type A flu virus, but occasionally, type B flu can still be extremely harmful. Influenza type B viruses are not classified by subtype and do not cause pandemics.

Whats the difference between influenza A and B?

Strains of influenza B are exclusively contracted by humans, while A can be carried (and spread) by animals, however, both strains are transmitted mainly by respiratory droplets from coughing and contact with an infected person.

Is influenza RNA or DNA?

All influenza viruses consist of single-stranded RNA as opposed to dual-stranded DNA. The RNA genes of influenza viruses are made up of chains of nucleotides that are bonded together and coded by the letters A, C, G and U, which stand for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively.

What was the deadliest flu?

There have been six major influenza epidemics in the last 140 years, with the 1918 flu pandemic being the most severe; this is estimated to have been responsible for the deaths of 50–100 million people. The most recent, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, resulted in under 300,000 deaths and is considered relatively mild.

When was the influenza pandemic?

Spanish flu

Was there a flu before the Spanish flu?

The first agreed influenza pandemic of the 18th century begins in 1729. Two influenza pandemics are recorded in the century. Avian influenza is recorded for the first time. Influenza pandemics are recorded four times, starting with the deadly Spanish flu.

What is the flu jab called?

Two types of influenza vaccine are widely available: inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). Traditionally, influenza vaccines (both IIV and LAIV) have been produced to protect against 3 different seasonal influenza viruses (also called trivalent vaccines).

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What is the leading cause of death in Malaysia?

Ischaemic heart diseases remained as the principal causes of death, 17.0 per cent of the 109,155 medically certified deaths in 2020. This was followed by Pneumonia (11.4%), Cerebrovascular diseases (8.3%), Transport accidents (2.9%) and Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung (2.5%).

What is vaxigrip Tetra?

Vaxigrip Tetra provides active immunisation against four influenza virus strains (two A subtypes and two B types) contained in the vaccine. Vaxigrip Tetra induces humoral antibodies against the haemagglutinins within 2 to 3 weeks. These antibodies neutralise influenza viruses.

Is influenza vaccine mandatory in Malaysia?

“Those in the risk group should be vaccinated to protect against influenza, but in general, Malaysians are encouraged to get vaccinated.”

Who can take influenza vaccine?

Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every season with rare exceptions. Vaccination is particularly important for people who are at higher risk of serious complications from influenza.

How much is the Chinese Covid vaccine cost?

This article cited sources which place the sale price per dose of Sinopharm's vaccine as between $19-$36 ($30 in China), which contrasts with the reported prices of other vaccines used in the EU and the US (Ref 1).

What's worse type A or B flu?

Which is worse: influenza A or influenza B? Influenza type A and type B are similar, but type A is overall more prevalent, sometimes more severe, and can cause flu epidemics and pandemics.

What's the worst flu A or B?

Type A influenza is generally considered worse than type B influenza. Flu or influenza is a contagious (spreads from person to person) viral illness that affects the respiratory tract (the nose, throat and lungs). Flu infections are more common during the fall and winter.

How long is influenza B contagious?

When Flu Spreads

Most healthy adults may be able to infect others beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5 to 7 days after becoming sick. Children and some people with weakened immune systems may pass the virus for longer than 7 days.

How is influenza B treated?

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) are drugs that doctors may use to treat type A or type B influenza. Antiviral drugs can reduce a person's recovery time by around 2 days, but they are only effective if a person takes them within a few days of symptoms starting.

What are the first symptoms of influenza B?

Influenza B symptoms

  • fever.
  • chills.
  • sore throat.
  • coughing.
  • runny nose and sneezing.
  • fatigue.
  • muscle aches and body aches.
  • Can you test positive for flu A and B?

    What does it mean if I have a positive test result for influenza A and/or B viruses? If you have a positive test result for the presence of influenza A and/or influenza B viruses, it is very likely that you have the flu.

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    Is flu virus an RNA virus?

    Coronaviruses and influenza viruses are both enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses, and both are encapsidated by nucleoprotein. However, the genomes of these 2 viruses differ in polarity and segmentation. Influenza virus is comprised of 8 single-stranded, negative-sense, viral RNA segments.

    Why is influenza A retrovirus?

    The term "retrovirus" means it behaves backwards from the original way that we all think about genetics, which is that DNA makes RNA, and RNA makes protein. So retroviruses have an RNA genome, and when they get into cells that RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, so it goes backwards.

    Where do influenza viruses come from?

    Answer: Influenza is a virus that's spread from person to person. It originates, actually, among birds and other animals such as pigs, and new viral strains of influenza come to this country and to Europe from Southeast Asia. That's the global pattern.

    How was Spanish flu transmitted?

    What caused the Spanish flu? The Spanish flu was a type A form of influenza virus that started in a bird host (bird flu), as discovered during later research. At some point, it was transmitted to mammals. Influenza types A and B are responsible for seasonal epidemics of flu (outbreaks in communities).

    How did the Black Death End?

    The most popular theory of how the plague ended is through the implementation of quarantines. The uninfected would typically remain in their homes and only leave when it was necessary, while those who could afford to do so would leave the more densely populated areas and live in greater isolation.

    What is the number 1 cause of death in the world?

    Summary. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. The second biggest cause are cancers.

    How many influenza pandemics are there?

    Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively.

    Is influenza A flu?

    Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at higher risk of serious flu complications.

    How long did it take to get rid of the Spanish flu?

    The influenza pandemic of 1918–19, also called the Spanish flu, lasted between one and two years. The pandemic occurred in three waves, though not simultaneously around the globe.

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    How was the Spanish flu different from the regular flu?

    The majority of the infected experienced only the typical flu symptoms of sore throat, headache, and fever, especially during the first wave. However, during the second wave, the disease was much more serious, often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, which was often the cause of death.

    What pandemic happened in 1958?

    The 1957–1958 Asian flu pandemic was a global pandemic of influenza A virus subtype H2N2 that originated in Guizhou in southern China. The number of excess deaths caused by the pandemic is estimated to be 1-4 million around the world (1957–1958 and probably beyond), making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history.

    How many Nzers died 1918 flu?

    While the First World War claimed the lives of more than 18,000 New Zealand soldiers over four years, the second wave of the 1918 influenza epidemic killed about 9000 people in less than two months. Death did not occur evenly throughout the country. Some communities were decimated; others escaped largely unscathed.

    Which vaccine is best for Covid?

    One study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found Moderna vaccine to be 96.3% effective in preventing symptomatic illness in health care workers compared to 88.8% for Pfizer.

    What ingredients are in the 2021 flu vaccine?

    The committee recommended that the quadrivalent formulation of egg-based influenza vaccines for the U.S. 2021-2022 influenza season contain the following: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus; an A/Cambodia/e0826360/2020 (H3N2)-like virus; a B/Washington/02/2019- like virus (B/Victoria lineage);

    What strains are in the 2020-2021 flu vaccine?

    For 2020-2021, cell- or recombinant-based vaccines are recommended to contain:

  • A/Hawaii/70/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus (updated)
  • A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like virus (updated)
  • B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus (updated)
  • B/Phuket/3073/2013-like (Yamagata lineage) virus.
  • What is the most common diseases in Malaysia?

    Top 7 Diseases in Malaysia

  • Coronary heart disease. According to the WHO, Coronary heart disease ranks number one in terms of both diseases and health-related problems, responsible for 29,363 deaths.
  • Stroke.
  • Influenza and pneumonia.
  • Lung diseases.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Leptospirosis.
  • Is Malaysia a healthy country?

    Malaysia is a dynamic country which has enjoyed economic growth and political stability since independence 50 years ago. Malaysians are more healthy, have a longer life expectancy and productive. The level of overall health achieved is an indication of the success of the country.

    Flu epidemics happen every year in Malaysia.

    The vaccine available anytime and is not costly although it may vary from hospital to hospital, but generally it is less than RM100.


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